By Arash Khazeni
Tribes and Empire at the Margins of Nineteenth-Century Iran strains the historical past of the Bakhtiyari tribal confederacy of the Zagros Mountains via momentous instances that observed the hole in their territory to the skin international. because the Qajar dynasty sought to combine the peoples on its margins into the nation, the British Empire made advertisement inroads into the as soon as inaccessible mountains at the frontier among Iran and Iraq. the space among the nation and the tribal margins of Iran used to be narrowed via imperial tasks that incorporated the collection of geographical and ethnographic details, the construction of a highway throughout the mountains, and the exploration for oil, which culminated in the course of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution.These glossy initiatives assimilated independent pastoral nomadic tribes at the peripheries of Qajar Iran right into a wider imperial territory and the realm financial system. Tribal topics didn't stay passive amidst those adjustments in setting and society, in spite of the fact that, and initiatives of empire within the hinterlands of Iran have been continuously mediated via encounters, lodging, and engagement with the tribes. unlike the variety of literature at the city periods and political heart in Qajar Iran, Arash Khazeni adopts a view from the Bakhtiyari tents at the periphery.Drawing upon Persian chronicles, tribal histories, and archival assets from London, Tehran, and Isfahan, this e-book opens new flooring via impending nineteenth-century Iran from its facet and putting the tribal outer edge on the middle of a story approximately empire and assimilation within the glossy center East.This ebook is the main particular and shiny account of tribes in nineteenth-century Iran but to be written and sheds new gentle on Iranian social and cultural heritage. -- Afshin Marashi, California country collage at SacramentoArash Khazeni's ebook fills a tremendous hole in our figuring out of tribes and center-periphery kin within the Qajar interval, putting the Bakhtiyari tribes' involvement within the Constitutional Revolution in the context of broader developments in Bakhtiyari politics and historical past. --Kamran Scot Aghaie, college of Texas at Austin
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Additional resources for Tribes & Empire on the Margins of Nineteenth-Century Iran
As John Chardin (1643–1713), the French jeweler who traveled through Safavid Iran in the late seventeenth century, recalled, the “shadow of Liberty” remained among the pastoral tribes on the periphery of Isfahan: To the East [sic] of Ispahan and near adjoining to his Territory lyes the province of Lour-Estom, which is held to be a part of ancient Parthia, extending on Arabia’s side toward Basra. The peoples that Inhabit it, never mind the building of Cities, nor have any settled Abodes, but live in Tents, for the most part feeding their Flocks and their Heards [sic], of which they have an infinite number.
They made a plan to save themselves and 4,000 horsemen with their eyes on the refuge, heedlessly abandoned their assignments and took flight into the mountains. The valorous commanders and protectors of the state swarmed on the enemy from different directions, putting them to death. . 84 The uprising of the Bakhtiyari tribes earned them harsh retribution. The government soldiers committed violent atrocities upon the Bakhtiyari and punished them by seizing nearly 80,000 sheep as spoils while the tribes were forced to run to the higher elevations of the mountains.
Writing in the early nineteenth century Robert Ker Porter saw them as independent and often violent “sons of the mountain”: In the most inaccessible parts of this stupendous range, live the Bactiari, Felly, and Mamazany tribes, or rather nations; the exhaustless bed of whose population stretches from the mountains above Kazaroon, to the immense piles in the vicinity of Kou-i-Zerd, whence they on t he per iphery of n i n et een t h- cen t u ry ir a n 39 pour their streams on errands of peace or war.
Tribes & Empire on the Margins of Nineteenth-Century Iran by Arash Khazeni